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Previously, we determined that the N-terminal region of Als proteins contains the substrate-binding site [ 2326 ]. This conclusion is supported by our current finding that latex beads coated with just the N-terminus of Als3 were Advance Logic Als3 to induce endocytosis. However, it was notable that coating the latex beads with rAls3-N resulted in a much greater increase in endocytosis than adherence. Also, coating beads with rAls1-N resulted in little to no increase in adherence, even though previous studies have clearly demonstrated that Als1 is an adhesin [ 3637 ].


The likely explanation for the relative lack of adherence of the beads is that they were coated with fragments of Als1 or Als3 that lacked the tandem repeats present in the central portion of the full-length proteins. Previously, we have found that the adhesive function of Als1 is dramatically reduced when some or all of the tandem Advance Logic Als3 are eliminated [ 26 ].

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Similarly, Oh et al. In addition, Rauceo et al. However, even the weak binding of the N-terminal portion of Als3 to N-cadherin or E-cadherin is sufficient to induce endocytosis. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminus of Als3 to either of these cadherins is sufficient to induce endocytosis. Previously, we Advance Logic Als3 reported that N-cadherin is one of the endothelial cell surface proteins that mediate endocytosis of C.

Advanced Logics — Chair of Algebraic and Logical Foundations of Computer Science — TU Dresden

E-cadherin is Advance Logic Als3 to mediate the endocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by epithelial cells [ 41 ], but it was not previously known to mediate the endocytosis of any fungi. Our results with C. Although the N-termini of Als1 and Als3 share considerable homology at the amino acid level, Als3 induced endocytosis much more efficiently than did Als1. The results of computer-assisted modeling provide a possible structural explanation for these functional differences. Even though N-terminal regions of Als1 and Als3 share general features, they are predicted to differ both in their 3-D Advance Logic Als3 and their interactions with N- and E-cadherin. While Als1 appears to favor an extended conformation, Als3 tends toward a more folded structure that forms a more distinct molecular cleft.

Our molecular modeling results also suggest that Als1 binds more weakly to N- and E-cadherin than does Als3. These results are consistent with our finding that beads coated with rAls3-N were endocytosed more avidly by CHO cells expressing N- or E-cadherin than were beads coated Advance Logic Als3 rAls1-N.

Computer-assisted modeling also predicted that Als1 and Als3 interact with N- and E-cadherin via different domains, and the geometry of Als3 binding to E-cadherin is similar to that of E-cadherin binding to itself. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that Als3 functions as a molecular mimic of mammalian cadherins, thereby facilitating C. Advance Logic Als3 N-terminal regions of Als1 and Als3 are also predicted to share structural homology to bacterial adhesins and invasins. Interestingly, this family of proteins includes internalin A of L.

Als3 Is a Candida albicans Invasin That Binds to Cadherins and Induces Endocytosis by Host Cells

The models presented here do not purport to specify exact interactions between cadherins and Als proteins. Defining such interactions at the atomic level requires physicochemical methods such as ultracentrifugation Advance Logic Als3 x-ray crystallography. However, our findings are strengthened by the fact that the results of our modeling of cadherin—cadherin interactions were very similar to what has been found by x-ray crystallography [ 45 ]. Previously, we have reported that S. Thus, these results are consistent with the model that Als3 binds to a broad range of host substrates. However, our data also indicate that there is some specificity in the binding of Als proteins to host constituents.

For example, beads coated with rAls3-N were endocytosed much more efficiently than were beads coated with rAls1-N. These results, combined with those of the molecular modeling studies, suggest that Als3 binds with greater affinity to N- and E-cadherin than does Als1. Prof.


Dr. Christel Baier SWS: Advance Logic Als3, in English Description The course is mandatory for students in the Master's program “Computational Logic”. For computer  Missing: Als3.

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ADVANCED LOGIC: METATHEORY. This course begins by surveying fundamental metatheoretical results about first-order logic. These include the soundness,  Missing: Als3.

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